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时间:2015-11-14 08:54来源:未知 作者:voa365 点击:
Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staf

Uniforms are a pervasive part of many societies. But in China there seems to be a particular adherence to uniforms. From entering the subway, passing security and stepping onto the train, you will have encountered not one, but multiple uniformed staff. Walking down the street will have meant dodging bright orange street cleaners, food-delivery staff on scooters or identically dressed salon workers receiving their morning briefing. Upon entering your office, you may have passed uniformed security guards on your way to colleagues dressed in suits and ties. They’re inescapable.
制服是许多社会普遍存在的一部分。但是中国人似乎更钟情于制服。当你乘地铁、过安检和坐火车时,你都会看到穿着各种制服的工作人员。当你走在街上,随处可 以看到穿着明亮橘色制服的清洁工,骑着踏板车的送餐员以及接受早训的沙龙服务员。当你去办公室时,你会遇见穿着制服的保安,以及西装革履的同事。制服无处 不在。


The uniform's place in Chinese society can be traced back through the country’s history. As in most places across the world, they have been worn throughout the ages in the military to distinguish between factions and provide protection. Each dynasty favored a different style for its soldiers. Drawings of soldiers from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-221 B.C.) show studded boots and uniforms with heavy arm and torso protection, whereas similar depictions from the Sui Dynasty (A.D. 581-618) illustrate draped and layered military wear. Uniforms were often as fierce as the battles their wearers fought in.
制服在中国社会的地位是有历史可以追溯的。就像在世界其他地方一样,士兵穿制服,一是为了区分军事派别,二是为了提供保护。每一个朝代的士兵制服的风格都 不同,从东周时期手绘士兵的画像可以看出,他们穿着沉重的靴子和制服以保护手臂和身体,同样的,从隋朝时期士兵的画像可以看出,他们都披着一层一层的盔 甲。制服常常是士兵在激烈战斗中最好的保护。


Uniforms were also designed to show status and mark levels of authority. In China, the Terracotta Warriors in Xi’an were molded to wear styles commonly found in the Qin Dynasty (221-207 B.C.). Officers' ranks were discernible by their dress, with generals wearing a dual long jacket, long pants, thigh protectors, a crest hat and a pair of boots with square tips.


But at points throughout history, uniforms were deemed fashion items too. Zhongshan suits (Chinese tunic suits, above) were hugely popular among males in 1950s, with women’s clothing based on a similar style. Introduced by Sun Yat-Sen and made famous by Mao Zedong who favored it in public, hence the nickname ‘Mao suit’, the clothing became a form of national dress.

In the military, clothing now follows the generic western style of pants, jacket and a hat. The Zhongshan suit has also undergone modernization. With an altered shape and more streamlined look, the once shapeless garment is now fitted and more flattering for the male body. But while it is still a popular choice for Chinese leaders during important events, tunic suits are rarely seen in wider society.

Yet, there are many places where uniforms live on. This is the case in the hospitality industry in particular, explains Catalina Calin, director of Calin Fashion Academy in Beijing.
北京Calin时装学院校长Catalina Calin称,仍然有很多地方需要制服,尤其是服务业。

“In Europe, you don’t see uniforms that often [compared to China]. Hospitality is the one industry that is still using them because they can project the type of service or professionalism that you are expecting,” she says. “A uniform is very important for how a client sees you, but it’s also important for how the employee is feeling. The uniform has to be fitted right for the person to feel confident and beautiful.”


Calin believes there will be more emphasis on uniforms’ appearance in the future: “Chinese ladies are starting to become more conscious of their appearance and beauty. This flows through to the places they work, which have to fit their needs,” she says, citing staff the New World Hotel’s Yin on 12 bar as an example of progression. “They wear short black skirts, rock-style shoes and dark make-up. This brings a very cool image to the bar.”
Calin认为,未来将会更加重视制服的外观,她说“中国女性越来越在意自己的外表。她们工作的地方也需满足她们的这一需求”。以New World Hotel酒吧的员工为例,“她们穿黑色短裙,摇滚风的鞋子,画着烟熏妆,这带给人一种非常酷的印象”。


But China’s love affair with uniforms stretches far beyond hospitality. While there is no single explanation for this, it may reflect a more inherently collectivist culture, where self-identity is shaped by group memberships. In the workplace, or in schools, people feel a stronger sense of self if they are able to define themselves as part of a group.


On the streets of Beijing, the way people feel about wearing uniforms varies wildly. Outside Ginza Mall we find Xing (above), a safety officer from Shanxi, wearing a dark blue-black shirt, pants and hat. “I feel like a soldier when I wear my uniform,” he declares, demonstrating an army-like pose. “It makes me feel like I’m part of a team. I like all of it.”


But not all are so positive about their work clothes. Zhao (below left), a 55-year-old former architect from Zhangjiakou, has been a cleaner around Dongzhimen for half a year. Like most cleaners, he is given two uniforms (one for winter and a lighter one for summer). Currently, he is wearing an orange jacket and pants and a pair of worn-out gray gloves, while carrying a straw broom and bucket in hand.
然而并不是所有的人都喜欢他们的工作服,来自张家口的55岁的赵(下图左),之前是一个建筑师,现在在东直门做清洁工已经半年了。像大多数清洁工一样,他 有两套工作服(一套是冬天的,一套是夏天的)。目前,他穿着一套橙色的服装,带着一副破烂的灰色手套,手里拿着扫帚和桶。


“I don’t like the color. If I could change my uniform I’d change the color because the orange doesn’t look very attractive. The uniform isn’t comfortable. It’s checked regularly though so we can’t change it in any way,” says Zhao, who says that cleaners all wear their own shoes but that their employers provide washing powder.


In fact, cleaners’ uniforms in Beijing differ according to location. One cleaner at Tiananmen Square, Liu (above right), 51, wears a royal-blue suit with yellow accents as he rides in a small electric cart with a bucket picking up trash. “My uniform is comfortable and I think the blue looks good,” he says.


His uniform is in stark contrast to Zhao’s bright orange. The latter’s dress may be down to practical considerations, such as the heavy traffic in Dongzhimen and the need for greater visibility. But in the restaurant world, the style of uniform is largely dependent on the establishment’s level of service and cuisine. High-end restaurants feature more of a classic style (shirt, pants) than those found in fast-food restaurants, for instance, which favor casual wear in the form of polos and tracksuits.
他的蓝色制服与赵的橙色制服形成鲜明对比。后者可能出于实际穿衣的考虑,例如,东直门的交通繁忙,需要更大的关注度。但是在餐饮业,制服的风格很大程度上 取决于服务和烹饪的水平。高级餐厅比快餐厅的制服风格更经典,通常是衬衫和长裤,而快餐厅会穿休闲服装,比如马球衫和运动服。


Zhang (above left), a server at the popular Guijie restaurant Culiang Renjia, wears a floral-printed top-and-pant combination with simple black shoes and pigtailed hair. Apart from a faint resemblance to pajamas, the uniform is visually appealing, and it fits the restaurant’s theme of nostalgia.


“I like my uniform because it’s unique and looks nice,” she says. “It’s very comfortable.”


As in most countries, uniform wearing begins from a young age in China. A student at Beijing No. 55 Middle School, 12-year old Fu (below), wears the mandatory tracksuit school uniform in blue, white and red. The tracksuit-style uniform has been worn by schoolchildren for more than two decades.


“Foreigners at my school don’t have to wear the uniform. I’d rather not have to wear it either because I don’t think it looks very good. I think other countries' school uniforms look much better.”


She tells us that her school has three uniforms (though all are variations on the tracksuit), which cost RMB480 altogether. The tracksuits were designed – like many school uniforms – to prevent comparisons between students’ appearances and to eliminate worries over clothing choice. The style fulfills these criteria, but at what cost? As one online commentator bluntly assessed: “They are the ugliest in the world.”


This particular comment came after US First Lady Michelle Obama visited a Beijing high school in 2014 and photos from the trip were splashed across social media. Commentators pointed out that the tracksuit is practical and wear-resistant, though many expressed that other designs can fulfill the same goals.


For students, as with adults, uniforms can increase the wearer’s confidence. Some believe that more stylish school wear may help students perform better (or feel happier, at least). In April 2013, the Henan Provincial Experimental School in Zhengzhou decided to let students design their own uniforms. The results were met with praise from parents and the public, and delight from students.


“Students have their own sense of aesthetics at their age,” the school’s Student Affairs Director, Feng Yan, told CCTV.


Such experiments are not necessarily a sign of relaxing attitudes toward uniforms in contemporary China. Despite a growing sense of individualism among younger generations, uniforms’ historic, cultural and practical role may see them widely retained across the country – and across industries. But while dressing in the same way may be, in some respects, the antithesis of fashion, uniforms are also subject to change over time. If these changes can accommodate both function and form, their place in society may be safe for some time to come.
这一实验并不是指当代中国对制服有了一定放松的态度。尽管年轻一代有着越来越强烈的个人主义观念,但制服的历史性、文化性和实用性在全国各地广泛地保留 着,而且是跨行业。在某些方面,穿着一样的衣服可能是站在时尚的对立面,但制服也在随着时间的改变而改变。如果这些改变能够同时兼顾功能和形式,那么制服 在社会中仍将保持它的地位。



generic: 通用的
hospitality industry: 服务业
tracksuit: 运动服


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